THE LOGIC OF FAILURE (PART 3)! We tag low-scoring schools as failures. But which schools can help struggling kids? // link // print // previous // next //
TUESDAY, APRIL 18, 2006
GOOD LORD: A Pulitzer even for Robin Givhan! And Richard Cohen on the exploits of boring Al Gore! Well ponder these matters tomorrow, along with Ezra Kleins C-SPAN outing (which we place in a separate category, although The Answer disappointed us some). But tell us the thought hasnt entered your head—that this really may be a separate life-form, not the species you thought you grew up with.
CHEERS FOR GELLMANS MESSAGE: Three cheers for Kevin Drums construction! Speaking of suddenly outspoken generals, he says this: I do think there are some genuine issues here that we shouldn't sweep under the carpet just because we like the message we're hearing. Indeed, we humans tend to sweep issues under the rug when we like the message were hearing (just click here for a recent discussion). So it has been in the past two weeks as the liberal web cheers bogus journalism because its been slamming George Bush.
Gellmans much-discussed front-page report appeared on Sunday, April 9. Its topic? Scooter Libbys conversations with reporters about Joe Wilson in June and July 2003. Why did we like the message we heard? Mainly, because Gellman offered the following nugget. Hes discussing Cheney and Libbys decision to hold these discussions with scribes:
GELLMAN (4/9/06): One striking feature of that decision—unremarked until now, in part because Fitzgerald did not mention it—is that the evidence Cheney and Libby selected to share with reporters had been disproved months before.Wow! Libby gave reporters evidence which had already been disproved? We liked that message when we heard it. In fact, we liked it so much that weve agreed to ignore the bungling in Gellmans report.
The bungling is everywhere, but Gellmans most absurd misstatement comes as he continues directly. How can anyone familiar with this case applaud this perfect bullroar?
GELLMAN (continuing directly): United Nations inspectors had exposed the main evidence for the uranium charge as crude forgeries in March 2003, but the Bush administration and British Prime Minister Tony Blair maintained they had additional, secret evidence they could not disclose. In June, a British parliamentary inquiry concluded otherwise, delivering a scathing critique of Blair's role in promoting the story. With no ally left, the White House debated whether to abandon the uranium claim and became embroiled in bitter finger-pointing about whom to fault for the error.Good lord! With no ally left? Its true—Parliament issued a report in June 2003 challenging Blairs uranium claims. But did the Bush Admin have no ally left at that point? In fact, the Admin still had a well-known ally; it had the Blair Administration, which defended the claim that Iraq sought uranium. One year later, a formal report by the Butler Commission said that the claim was well-founded. That judgment may or may not be accurate, but its absurd to say that the Bush Admin had no ally left concerning this matter—and in the course of Gellmans lengthy piece, he never mentions Blairs stand or Butlers report; the information is simply disappeared. Is this a case of great reporting? Sorry—its a case of gross misstatement. And Gellman quickly makes his next misstatement—although this time, it aint all his fault:
GELLMAN (continuing directly): It was at that moment that Libby, allegedly at Cheney's direction, sought out at least three reporters to bolster the discredited uranium allegation. Libby made careful selections of language from the 2002 estimate, quoting a passage that said Iraq was "vigorously trying to procure uranium" in Africa...In fact, Libby didnt tell Miller that the alleged effort to buy uranium was a key judgment; this too is a flat misstatement. But this time, Gellman had some help in high places; his reporting was based on Patrick Fitzgeralds bungled court filing—an inaccurate filing which Fitzgerald corrected three days after Gellmans report. This misstatement by Gellman is mainly Fitzgeralds fault (though not totally), but its odd to think that we continue to call this great reporting even after we know that its claims were just wrong. And just like that, Gellman puts his thumb on the scale once again. This time, he employs the sort of balanced construction we liberals love to deride—but only when the practice is used to drive a message we dont enjoy hearing:
GELLMAN (continuing directly): Unknown to the reporters, the uranium claim lay deeper inside the estimate, where it said a fresh supply of uranium ore would "shorten the time Baghdad needs to produce nuclear weapons." But it also said U.S. intelligence did not know the status of Iraq's procurement efforts, "cannot confirm" any success and had "inconclusive" evidence about Iraq's domestic uranium operations.For the record, thats correct—the specific phrase about vigorously trying to procure uranium ore lay in the body of the NIE, where it was part of the documents consensus. To blunt this inconvenient fact, Gellman tosses in a string of irrelevant points, such as the fact that U.S. intelligence couldnt confirm any actual purchase. (Bush hadnt claimed any actual purchase.) And note how Gellmans thumb finds the scale as he continues to obscure an important fact—the fact that the claim about vigorously trying to pursue uranium ore was part of the documents consensus:
GELLMAN (continuing directly): Iraq's alleged uranium shopping had been strongly disputed in the intelligence community from the start. In a closed Senate hearing in late September 2002, shortly before the October NIE was completed, then-director of central intelligence George J. Tenet and his top weapons analyst, Robert Walpole, expressed strong doubts about the uranium story, which had recently been unveiled publicly by the British government. The State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research, likewise, called the claim "highly dubious." For those reasons, the uranium story was relegated to a brief inside passage in the October estimate.Would you ever dream, from reading this passage, that the uranium story was part of the body—the consensus—of the NIE, and that the State Departments judgment was a dissent from that consensus—was one of the NIEs minority views? Of course you wouldnt, but we cheer to this day. We like the message were hearing.
As Gellman continues, he stumbles along, conflating claims about alleged procurement with claims that Iraq and Niger discuss[ed] a uranium sale (our emphasis). Soon, he presents his blockbuster claim, a claim which has not been reported before—his claim that the National Intelligence Council filed a report in January 2003 which said that the Niger story was baseless and should be laid to rest. (We discussed this matter in yesterdays HOWLER.) But which Niger story did the council address? Gellman doesnt quote a single word from this report, or even name its author; to all appearances, he simply doesnt know what this report said—which Niger story it addressed. Did this report somehow manage to show that Niger had never sought uranium from Africa? Proving such a negative would be hard, a point that seems to be lost on Gellman, who never seems to realize—even three long years later—that theres a difference between seeking and buying uranium, or that many Niger stories have been part of this tale, some of which have no real relevance to the thing that Bush really said.
Gellmans report is awful journalism, starting what that inexcusable claim about the Admin having no ally left. But many liked the message they heard, and theyve rushed to praise this piece as the most brilliant reporting on earth.
WHY WE FIGHT: We gather that some are deeply disturbed by our inexcusable ways. Sorry. Going all the way back to two separate junctures during Campaign 2000, we have always criticized the mainstream press on those occasions when it has tilted against Bush. Example: In September 2000, with the election on the line, we spent a week criticizing the press corps sudden, obvious tilt against Bush—a brief period which ended with the invention of the crackpot doggy pill/union lullaby stories. (These posts were on the site of SpeakOut.com, which is no longer active.) Yes, as Gore began pulling away in the polls, the press corps began to tilt against Bush—as theyve bravely done in the past few weeks, now that his numbers have fallen so low. Many of us whistle and cheer as they spin their facts in a way we like hearing. Go ahead—cheer all you please! But dont expect us to cheer for your conduct. What else is new, after all? Starting with Platos version of Socrates, western lit has always discussed this thing you do—and in response, you have always gotten mad.
Guess what? During Campaign 2000, we endlessly criticized the sliming of Gore because thats what the press corps was actually doing. Some of you can only imagine inventing preferred tales—and you assume thats what others are doing.
WHO WEVE BECOME: Who have we become on the web? Yesterday, Alterman started by saying this of Joe Klein: Times most liberal columnist thinks it might be a good idea to nuke Iran. But heres what The Demon actually said in the discussion in question:
KLEIN (4/16/06): By all means we should talk to [Iran] but on the other hand, we should not take any option, including the use of tactical nuclear weapons, off the table.So actually, no—Klein didnt say it was a good idea. But Klein has become Our Latest Fine Demon, and some of you will rush to the transcript, determined to find some way to pretend that Erics statement is actually right. And then, youll get busy inventing motives—to explain why wed say something accurate.
Special report—The logic of failure!
PART 3—THE LOGIC OF THE FAILING SCHOOL: Ouch! In a news report in yesterdays Times, Damien Cave even called them dysfunctional. Vouchers are sometimes seen as a way to escape dysfunctional schools, the scribe said:
CAVE (4/17/06): The education dispute in Newark underscores the continuing debate among poor, mostly minority residents in troubled urban school districts over the role of vouchers. Some parents and educators see them as a backhanded attempt to divert resources to private institutions. Others, especially the poor, seem more willing to accept them as an opportunity to escape dysfunctional schools.Ouch! (Caves report was well done, by the way.) Vouchers are seen as a way to escape Newarks dysfunctional schools, Cave wrote—but more often, low-scoring urban schools are simply referred to as failing. Indeed, that was the term in the New York Times headline which topped Susan Saulnys recent report (see THE DAILY HOWLER, 4/11/06). Few Students Seek Free Tutoring or Transfers From Failing Schools, it said.
According to Saulnys right-on report, the vast majority of students in low-scoring schools have been passing up a pair of remedies offered under No Child Left Behind. They havent been signing up for free tutoring, and they havent been transferring from their low-scoring schools—two options the federal program offers. But the question we ask today concerns the logic of that common-place term—failing school. Many urban schools record low test scores—but what do we mean when we call such schools failing? The familiar phrase does roll off the tongue, sometimes in haughty editorials which assert that various people are complicit in producing these schools poor scores, and giving their children an awful education. But that familiar term—failing school—can conspire to cloud our vision. It can lead us to draw conclusions about these schools which may not be true—and it may lead parents, and even school planners, to make unhelpful decisions.
Why do some schools have such low scores? Is it because the teachers in such schools are complicit in bad outcomes? Is it because the students in such schools are being given an awful education? In part, some schools have low test scores for a well-known reason—because such schools teach less able students, deserving kids from less privileged backgrounds. As everyone except fantasists knows, its a whole lot easier to achieve good scores if youre teaching kids from high-literacy backgrounds—and it can be a whole lot harder if youre teaching deserving low-income kids. Many times, such kids are behind on the day they first come to school. As always, lets quote that new study:
CENTER FOR AMERICAN PROGRESS: Young low-income and minority children are more likely to start school without having gained important school readiness skills, such as recognizing letters and counting...By the fourth grade, low-income students read about three grade levels behind non-poor students.The two parts of that profile are not unrelated. Many low-income kids are behind their peers on the day they enter kindergarten. Four years later, they may be recording low test scores—the kinds of scores that get a school tagged with the failing label. In our experience, such low-scoring schools will often have inadequate programs for their low-scoring, low-income, low-literacy kids. But heres the key point—that doesnt mean that other schools would be prepared to do any better. A struggling fourth-grader may leave her failing school and enter a school with better scores—but that doesnt mean that she will get more help in that new locale. And thats a point we ought to keep clear as we try to master an important subject—the logic of grade school failure.
If children leave a failing school, will they get a better deal in the higher-scoring school they enter? Not necessarily, no—they will not. Consider the information in Maria Glods report from last Fridays Post, for example. The Fairfax County schools are among the most respected in the country, and their quality has long been a draw for families, Glod reported. Nearly 90 percent of public school graduates go on to college or other schools. But Glod also noted a troubling fact; Fairfax Countys younger black students dont seem to be sharing in all the systems success. Although Glod failed to provide some relevant data, it seems that black students in the Fairfax schools are doing no better, on average, than black peers throughout the state. Indeed, such students are scoring less well than black kids in some urban districts:
GLOD (4/14/06): Black students in Fairfax County are consistently scoring lower on state standardized tests than African American children in Richmond, Norfolk and other comparatively poor Virginia districts, surprising Fairfax educators and forcing one of the nation's wealthiest school systems to acknowledge shortcomings that have been masked by its overall success.Again, Glods data are limited. But her data suggest an obvious possibility: If a struggling black student leaves his failing school and transfers to a better school in Fairfax, that school may be no better equipped to help him than the school he just left. Put another way: In large part, Fairfax schools record high scores because its kids come from more-advantaged, higher-literacy backgrounds. Its relatively easy to attain high scores with kids who come from such backgrounds. That doesnt necessarily mean that such a school is prepared to help a struggling child who may be years behind.
One school is failing; the other school isnt. But neither school may be prepared to help that child who is three years behind.
Typically, its hard to teach the deserving kids described in that latest new study. By the fourth grade, low-income students are about three grade levels behind in reading? In that circumstance, it can be hard to find textbooks these children can read, and it can be hard to find appropriate materials for their independent reading. And if theyre also two or three years behind in their math, it can be hard to find instructional programs they can successfully work with. These tasks are no easier for a teacher because shes in a high-scoring school. One school is failing—the other school isnt. But that doesnt mean that the high-scoring school is prepared to help these struggling children. Simply put: If these two schools switched student bodies, the failing school might now have high scores—and the high-scoring school might now fail. One school is failing—the other school isnt. But that doesnt mean that teachers in the high-scoring school are necessarily doing a better job.
For what its worth, some states are trying make school ranking systems more rational by finding new ways to rate their schools. Which of a states schools are really successful—and which of a states schools are really failing? Were skeptics; we cant quite believe that improved ranking new ranking systems will help us find ways to help low-scoring kids. But its important to grasp the logic of failure. Tomorrow, well continue that quest.
TOMORROW—PART 4: Which schools are actually failing?